Wow...what a topic! This could be the jumping off place for many books and guess what...many books have been written about this topic.
Here is my take on this...first, read everything you can about photography, painting and art. Then, keep shooting. Sooner or later one book, or one idea, will stand out from the rest and a light bulb will go on. You will "get it."
Next, look at the work of the masters. Learn about composition and light. Learn how light and dark creates mood. Discover how to use positive and negative space. Ask questions like: "How did they do that?" Then, find out (by experimenting) how they did do that. Keep a notebook and record your settings. What settings, conditions and combinations give you the results you want?
The more you shoot, the more you learn. The more you learn the closer you will come to the style that is you. Shoot what you love and keep on shooting and experimenting. You will continue discovering new avenues of expression and through these discoveries, your very own photographic style will evolve.
Remember: Be Good, Do Good And Get Better.